“Spontaneous creation is the reason there is something rather than nothing, why the Universe exists, why we exist.”
Nucleosynthesis is the creation of new atomic nuclei, the centers of atoms that are made up of protons and neutrons. Nucleosynthesis first occurred within a few minutes of the Big Bang. At that time, a quark-gluon plasma, a soup of particles known as quarks and gluons, condensed into protons and neutrons.
Blueshift would be the opposite term to the redshift. As we can see in the visible light spectrum, a blueshift would mean that we are detecting a signal with a higher frequency.
Thus, when an astronomical object is blueshifted it means that it is coming towards us.
Even though we are in an expanding universe, there are stronger forces between us and some galaxies that may cause in a 'far' future (between apostrophes because time is relative, especially when it comes to our vantage point) a collision. There are about 100 known galaxies with blueshifts out of the billions of galaxies in the observable universe. Most of these galaxies are in our own local group, and are all in orbit about each other. Most are dwarf galaxies among them include the Andromeda Galaxy, M31...
This aims to show how important this data has been, and still is, for scientists. Anyway, let's go step by step!
Firstly, the following image shows an emission spectrum from an unknown object (we can know its composition from the spectral lines!!) in three different situations: moving towards us, moving away from us, and moving neither away nor fowards us: staying at rest.
You can easily check that from just seeing the differences in the nm (nanometers is the most common unit used for this precise situation) of the same lines.